To control labour costs , managers must first measure the amount and type of work required to produce a product and then specify well-designed, efficient methods for accomplishing the necessary manufacturing tasks. The concepts of work measurement and time study introduced by Taylor and the Gilbreths, as well as incentive systems to motivate and reward high levels of worker output, are important tools in this area of management.
In new operations particularly, it is important to anticipate human resource requirements and to translate them into recruiting and training programs so that a nucleus of appropriately skilled operators is available as production machinery and equipment are installed.
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Specialized groups responsible for support activities such as equipment maintenance, plant services and production scheduling, and control activities also need to be hired, trained, and properly equipped. This type of careful personnel planning reduces the chance that expensive capital equipment will stand idle and that effort, time, and materials will be wasted during start-up and regular operations. The effective use and control of materials often involves investigations of the causes of scrap and waste; this, in turn, can lead to alternative materials and handling methods to improve the production process.
Because of the enormous complexity of typical production operations and the almost infinite number of changes that can be made and the alternatives that can be pursued, a productive body of quantitative methods has been developed to solve production management problems. Most of these techniques have emerged from the fields of industrial engineering, operations research, and systems engineering.
Indeed, many mass production operations could not run without the support of these industrial engineers and technical specialists. The important aspects of production control are summarized in the Table. Production management. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Case studies allow students to consider familial, cultural, sociological, and other influences upon toy and game design over the last century. Through discussion, analysis and workshops, students move towards designing their own toy or game, or modifying an existing one.
GED Living Green The need to lead healthy, environmentally conscious lives is increasingly important. Students acquire the practical knowledge and skills required to explore current environmental challenges and identify personal plans for living in an environmentally responsible manner. Through a combination of assignments, discussion boards, and quiz work, students investigate the history and development of current environmental concerns, the environmental impact of our choices and behaviours, and strategies involved in living green.
By examining a variety of popular myths, students discover how the Ancient Greeks crafted narratives of gods, goddesses, monsters, and heroic figures to make sense of their lives and the world around them. Using examples from art, science, and industry, students examine how these epic stories from oral tradition have endured and continue to influence contemporary society.
By exploring different religious beliefs about the world, the individual, the meaning of life and death, and how individuals are encouraged to conduct themselves, students begin to appreciate the underlying forces that shape followers' lives. Students explore the history and basic teachings of six of the major religions of the world: Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Baha'i Faith.
Each religion's distinctive features are highlighted, while their similarities and shared values are examined. Students have the opportunity to broaden their worldview through an exposure to divergent religious traditions.
GED Digging into Ancestral Roots Students are encouraged to become amateur genealogists, recording their past for future generations using the modern tools of science and technology. Students examine how scientists use DNA evidence to trace one's origins back to the beginning of humankind's existence, and to determine how contemporary individuals might be related to one another. By examining microfilm technology and computer databases that store and retrieve data about their ancestors, students uncover data, such as birth, death, marriage records and land transactions.
Through discussion forum activities and individual research, students retrieve family records and examine privacy issues associated with putting one's family tree online. The final product is a four generational family tree supported by genealogical evidence. GED Learning Disabilities, the Invisible Disability Students increase their awareness of, and sensitivity to, persons with learning disabilities in social, educational and work settings.
The field of learning disabilities is introduced through an historical overview, definitions, characteristics, and various models of the causes of learning disabilities. Students learn about the impact learning disabilities have on people's day-to-day lives and the strategies that may be used to compensate for them. Activities include group work, independent research, reflection and case studies. Students are encouraged to share personal experience and knowledge.
GED The Science of Everyday Life The mysteries of science surround us constantly and play a significant role in everyone's daily life regardless of their level of awareness. Familiarity with the basic concepts of science in disciplines, such as biology, physics, and chemistry, helps students better understand the world in which they live, the attitudes and opinions of those with whom they interact, and the reasons why many things happen.
By examining everyday occurrences, students are introduced to scientific ways of thought and to problem-solving methods used by scientists. A background in science and math is not required. Students survey the development, use, and value of humour in Canadian visual and creative arts.
Varieties of humour, such as irony, satire and farce are positioned in the context of Canadian culture to enhance the student's appreciation of humour and self-awareness. In today's society there is increasingly more attention focused on questions of right or wrong, good or evil. Ethical issues relating to a wide variety of concerns are examined. Students clarify their own moral values and explore how these values impact the course of their lives.
Students practise using tools and decision-making models to deal with personal and professional dilemmas. GEN Science Fiction Science fiction is both a major genre of popular entertainment and an effective mode of social commentary. Students explore the formal conventions and the history of the genre, analyze a representative range of science fiction, and develop their critical appreciation of the role and place of science fiction in society.
In addition to writing reflective and analytical assignments, students have an opportunity to create their own piece of science fiction. GEN Multiculturalism in Film Since becoming policy in Canada in , multiculturalism has been an important part of Canada's cultural identity. Through viewing and reflecting on a series of films, students enhance their understanding of multiculturalism, as well as the values and representations of multiculturalism, both positive and negative, that the films present.
Among the issues covered are immigration, refugees, ethnic enclaves, the "Quebec question", indigenous relations, racism and ethnic violence. Do you exercise regularly? Do you know how to prevent injuries and disease? These are some of the skills necessary to live a healthy lifestyle. Through self-evaluation, weekly journals, and hands-on exercises students asses their personal lifestyles and learn how to improve them.
GEN Community Service Volunteerism not only benefits a community; it can broaden the worldview of the volunteer. Students who give their time and energy to a particular cause, gain an opportunity to reflect on the value of the volunteer in contemporary society. Through research and discussion, students consider different types of volunteer settings, trace the history of volunteer organizations, examine the various roles volunteers play within society and reflect on ethical issues.
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HIS Good Times and Bad - 70 Years in the Life of Canada During the 70 years from to , Canadians experienced times of prosperity and progress, as well as periods of depression and war. There were times of optimism and moments of crisis. Through it all Canadians built a nation and contributed to the world's development. Students explore the political framework of Canada, recurring social issues, and the place of Canada in the world.
HOS Wine, Food and Culture An understanding of culture can be discovered by exploring eating and drinking customs. Students experience a virtual global tour, exploring culture, history and traditions through the lens of wine and food.
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Students acquire a sense of the customs of their culture and those of others. Through comparison, observation, discussion, and reflection, students discover something found in all cultures: the importance of food and drink. HOS The Dinner Party Table manners are as unique to a culture as the foods they eat - how people eat varies widely from country to country. Participants in this course explore the culture and customs of international dining practices. Through investigation, discussion and reflection, participants have the opportunity to raise their own and each other's awareness and sensitivity to different cultural behaviours and customs.
Over scheduled lunches and dinners, participants consider the influence of culture, society, religion, geography and history on dining practices around the world. It tones the mind in ways similar to the way exercise tones the body.
As a result, time spent in reading for recreation has benefits beyond the immediate appreciation of the text. Students examine appeal factors of various genres of fiction and non-fiction by reviewing the history and classics of each genre, considering the therapeutic values of reading, and examining recent trends in online reading and publishing. MGT Trends in Today's Workplace In today's culture of work, every employee needs to be knowledgeable about current trends and issues in the workplace. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity , Mankiw, N.